Russian tiger team hails success

December 24, 2010 Leave a comment

By Victoria Gill
Science and nature reporter, BBC News
Amur tiger (Image: John Goodrich/WCS) Critically endangered Amur tigers occasionally wander into remote villages
Living within the habitat of a dangerous animal is not easy.

But it is particularly challenging when that animal is the critically endangered Amur tiger.

If a tiger wanders into a remote Russian village it poses a threat, but also raises a difficult quandary: how can people protect themselves without resorting to killing a creature that is on very the brink of extinction?

A special Tiger Response Team in Russia has sought to solve that problem.

The World Conservation Society (WCS) and an anti-poaching patrol dubbed Inspection Tiger are working closely with the team.

It was set up by the government in 1999 to help resolve “human- tiger conflict”.

Amur tigers live in the mosaic of forests in Russia’s Far East – an expanse of more than 150,000 sq km of tiger habitat that is dotted with small human settlements.

“There’s a grey area where both tigers and humans co-exist,” explains Dale Miquelle, director of the WCS Russia Programme.

“So, even though the tigers are incredibly scarce, they do pass through or close to villages on a regular basis.”

When a tiger does come too close, it might prey on a domestic animal – most commonly a pet dog or a cow.

Much more rarely it might attack a human.

Danger signal

In the past 10 years, Amur tigers have killed at least 254 domestic animals, 160 of which were dogs.

Official records show 19 attacks on humans, resulting in 11 injuries and two deaths.

And this is where the response team’s very hands-on approach comes in.

When someone sees a tiger or discovers an animal that has clearly been mauled by one, they can alert the local authorities, who then contact the team.

“The local authorities assess the situation and, if necessary, a team is despatched,” explained Dr Miquelle.

“But we’re dealing with a vast area, so it can take several days to reach the village.”

Once there, the response team has a number of options.

The most straightforward is to scare the tiger away, using rockets or flares. But sometimes it is necessary to capture the animal.

“We do that quite often,” says Dr Miquelle. “What we do once we capture it depends on the situation.

“Sometimes we’ll put a radio collar on it and put it back where it is.

“Sometimes we’ll move it to another location – if we think that will reduce the likelihood of it [returning to the village].”

But if a tiger is wounded, the situation is more complicated.

Amur tiger being fitted with a radio collar (Image: John Goodrich/WCS) Radio collars allow conservationists to track the critically endangered tigers

John Goodrich, a conservationist and wildlife photographer, has worked with the team during some of their tiger rescue missions.

He says most tigers that attack people in Russia have been shot by poachers or injured by traps.

And these injuries change the tigers’ behaviour – driving the animals into human populations to pick on domesticated prey, if they are incapacitated and unable to hunt.

According to Dr Goodrich, wounds from from botched poaching attempts are a leading cause of Amur tiger attacks on people.

Tiger rehabilitation

Injured tigers can sometimes be rehabilitated and released into the forest.

But when one is too badly hurt or too dangerous, the team has to remove it from the wild altogether – for its own safety, as well as to protect humans.

Dr Goodrich followed the rehabilitation of one young male tiger called Volya, which was shot in the face by poachers.

“The bullet broke three canines and shattered his lower jaw,” he recalled.

Vets at the Utyos Wildlife Rehabilitation Center wired it together as best they could: “But the injury condemned Volya to a life in captivity”.

Dr Goodrich and his colleagues are now attempting to survey the prevalence of infectious diseases in the Amur tiger population, which might also affect their behaviour and make them more aggressive to humans.

Counting tigers

Amur tiger at the Utyos Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (Image: John Goodrich/WCS) The team sometimes transports injured tigers to a wildlife rehabilitation centre

It is tricky to quantify exactly how many tigers the team’s efforts have saved; but at this stage, every individual counts.

The latest survey estimated that there were just 350 Amur tigers remaining in the wild.

“There’s some indication that we’ve been able to reduce the number of tiger losses associated with conflicts,” said Dr Miquelle.

He says there is definitely room for improvement. Efforts to scare animals away from human-dominated areas have not been as successful as hoped.

“But with so few tigers remaining, we know we have to turn that declining trend around,” he tells BBC News.

“And we do see human caused mortality as a really important component of that – 20 years ago, the main intervention was a bullet.”

In such isolated communities, the response team hopes to give local people a signal that there is a group that cares about their welfare.

“It really can be extremely threatening when an animal the size of a tiger walks into you neighbourhood,” says Dr Miquelle.

“So having a team that can deal with that is really important.”


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New solar fuel machine unveiled

December 24, 2010 Leave a comment

23 December 2010 Last updated at 19:11 GMT By Neil Bowdler Science reporter, BBC News In the prototype, sunlight heats a ceria cylinder which breaks down water or carbon dioxide In the prototype, sunlight heats a ceria cylinder which breaks down water or carbon dioxide A prototype solar device has been unveiled which mimics plant life, turning the Sun’s energy into fuel.

The machine uses the Sun’s rays and a metal oxide called ceria to break down carbon dioxide or water into fuels which can be stored and transported.

Conventional photovoltaic panels must use the electricity they generate in situ, and cannot deliver power at night.

Details are published in the journal Science.

The prototype, which was devised by researchers in the US and Switzerland, uses a quartz window and cavity to concentrate sunlight into a cylinder lined with cerium oxide, also known as ceria.

Ceria has a natural propensity to exhale oxygen as it heats up and inhale it as it cools down.

If as in the prototype, carbon dioxide and/or water are pumped into the vessel, the ceria will rapidly strip the oxygen from them as it cools, creating hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide.

Hydrogen produced could be used to fuel hydrogen fuel cells in cars, for example, while a combination of hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be used to create “syngas” for fuel.

It is this harnessing of ceria’s properties in the solar reactor which represents the major breakthrough, say the inventors of the device. They also say the metal is readily available, being the most abundant of the “rare-earth” metals.

Methane can be produced using the same machine, they say.

Refinements needed

The prototype is grossly inefficient, the fuel created harnessing only between 0.7% and 0.8% of the solar energy taken into the vessel.

Most of the energy is lost through heat loss through the reactor’s wall or through the re-radiation of sunlight back through the device’s aperture.

But the researchers are confident that efficiency rates of up to 19% can be achieved through better insulation and smaller apertures. Such efficiency rates, they say, could make for a viable commercial device.

“The chemistry of the material is really well suited to this process,” says Professor Sossina Haile of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). “This is the first demonstration of doing the full shebang, running it under (light) photons in a reactor.”

She says the reactor could be used to create transportation fuels or be adopted in large-scale energy plants, where solar-sourced power could be available throughout the day and night.

However, she admits the fate of this and other devices in development is tied to whether states adopt a low-carbon policy.

“It’s very much tied to policy. If we had a carbon policy, something like this would move forward a lot more quickly,” she told the BBC.

It has been suggested that the device mimics plants, which also use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to create energy as part of the process of photosynthesis. But Professor Haile thinks the analogy is over-simplistic.

“Yes, the reactor takes in sunlight, we take in carbon dioxide and water and we produce a chemical compound, so in the most generic sense there are these similarities, but I think that’s pretty much where the analogy ends.”

The PS10 solar tower plant near Seville, Spain. Mirrors concentrate the sun's power on to a central tower, driving a steam turbine The PS10 solar tower plant near Seville, Spain. Mirrors concentrate the sun’s power on to a central tower, driving a steam turbine

Daniel Davies, chief technology officer at the British photovoltaic company Solar Century, said the research was “very exciting”.

“I guess the question is where you locate it – would you put your solar collector on a roof or would it be better off as a big industrial concern in the Sahara and then shipping the liquid fuel?” he said.

Solar technology is moving forward apace but the overriding challenges remain ones of efficiency, economy and storage.

New-generation “solar tower” plants have been built in Spain and the United States which use an array of mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto tower-mounted receivers which drive steam turbines.

A new Spanish project will use molten salts to store heat from the Sun for up to 15 hours, so that the plant could potentially operate through the night.


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